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How can a 3D printing model can be printed out with higher quality? What are the factors?

3D printing technology has increased with its utility and popularity. More and more 3D printing users can access 3D printing technology and understand the charm of 3D printing. However, when new users use it for the first time, they must worry about the accuracy of their 3D printing model. So, what are the factors that will affect the accuracy of the model? The 3d printer? Or how to execute the 3d printing process?

 FDM(Fused Deposition Molding) technology is the mainstream technology used in desktop 3d printer. The principle of operation is to heat and melt the filaments thermoplastic material through a nozzle and extrude, the 3d printing material mainly including ABS, PLA. TPU and so on. In fact, in the 3D printing process, there are many factors that affect the accuracy of the finished product, such as the accuracy of the 3d printer itself, 3D printing temperature, 3D printing speed, materials, etc. Let’s look at these factors one by one.

                          
 













1, 3d printer's own precision
 
In fact, it has already been determined at the beginning of the purchase of the 3D printer, so be sure to check it before purchasing the right 3D printer. The manufacturing and assembly accuracy of the printer and the vibration during operation will affect its 3D printing accuracy. Compared to ordinary printers, they only have X and Y that can move in both directions. In addition to X, Y, 3D printers also increase the longitudinal movement of the Z axis. Any movement of the wires is a mutual friction between the components and will always produce subtle deviations. For example, the XY plane error, the stiffness of the 3D printer frame structure and the materials used will have a large impact on its stability. For those professional users, choosing a heavier 3D printing load with more metal material will help the stability and durability of the 3d printer.
 
In addition, the diameter of the nozzle also determines the width of the extruded wire, which affects the detail of the finished product. We know that 3D printing is to construct objects by layer. Therefore, the layer thickness setting also affects the roughness of the finished product: with large diameter nozzles, the layer thickness will be thicker. Although 3D printing is faster,  but it also will be rougher. On the contrary, the 3D printing speed is slower and the finished product will be more refined.
 
2. 3D printing temperature
 
The 3D printing temperature we are talking about here actually includes the nozzle temperature and the heated bed temperature. Among them, the nozzle temperature determines the bonding properties of the material, stacking performance, wire flow and extrusion line width. Therefore, the nozzle temperature should not be too low or too high.If too low, the viscosity of the material increases, the extrusion speed is slow; If too high, the material is biased to the liquid state, the viscosity coefficient is lowered, the fluidity is enhanced, and the extrusion is too fast to form a precisely controllable filament. Therefore, when setting the temperature of the nozzle, it should beselected within a certain range according to the characteristics of theselected wire to ensure that the extruded wire is in a molten flow state.
 
       
The temperature of the forming bed will affect the thermal stress of the shaped part. Although high temperatures help to reduce thermal stress, the surface of the part is prone to wrinkling. If the temperature is too low, quenching of the wire extruded from the nozzle will increase the thermal stress of the formed part. It is easy to cause warp of parts. In order to form smoothly, in the 3D printing ABS, the temperature of the forming bed is usually maintained at 55 degrees Celsius, and the PLA needs to maintain ventilation and heat dissipation as much as possible.
 
3. layer thickness and compensation
 
The so-called layer thickness refers to the layer thickness at the time of slicing. Each layer has a certain thickness which will produce a visible step effect on the surface of the shaped product. The higher the layer thickness, the more texture and more significant, which will affect the size of the shaped body, surface error and roughness. For FDM technology, this is a major drawback, and the layering cannot be completely eliminated, but can be improved by setting a smaller layer thickness.
 
The amount of compensation is the distance between the actual machined contours of the piece. For models with high precision requirements, general modeling should be compensated as much as possible, especially the inner hole, and the setting and compression of the compensation amount. The wire diameter is 3d printer.
 
4. Extrusion speed and filling speed
 
In the case of a reasonable matching of the filling speed, the larger the extrusion speed, the larger the cross-sectional width of the extruded yarn; when the extrusion speed is increased to a certain value, the extruded filament may adhere to the outer taper of the nozzle. On the surface, it affects the surface appearance of the model. When the filling speed is faster than the extrusion speed, the material may be broken and difficult to form due to insufficient filling; on the contrary, the filling speed is slower than the extrusion speed, the fuse is liable to accumulate on the nozzle, and the forming surface material is uneven and defective. , affecting the quality of 3D printing, therefore, the filling speed and extrusion speed should be within a reasonable range.
 
To create beautiful 3D printing products, you need a comprehensive understanding of 3D printing technology and machinery. Mastering the various factors that affect the accuracy of 3D printing can better avoid failures, improve the cost performance of 3D printing, and achieve better economic value.  
                                                                          
                                                                                   Shenzhen Creality3d technology Co.,Ltd
                                                                          Soruce: https://www.creality3d.cn
                                                                          Date: 2019.5.10