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Maker’s Guide| Simple Troubleshooting on Layer Misalignment and Missing Layers

FDM 3D printing builds 3D models layer by layer. It is necessary to make sure each layer is solidified and fully bonded. If the layers do not adhere well to each other, the final print may be easily cracked or broken. In this article, we will probe into the reason causing layer misalignment and missing layers and effective solutions.
 
1. Excessive layer height
Standard printer nozzles are often between 0.2 and 0.6 mm. Filament extruded from this small hole will create delicate final prints due to the precise filament extrusion. However, small nozzle tip also results in an issue of layer height limitation. To make sure the layers are glued perfectly, the layers height has to be set correctly. In general, the layer height is 20% smaller than the nozzle diameter. For instance, if the nozzle tip is of 0.04mm, the layer height should not exceed 0.32mm and the appropriate layer height is supposed to set between 0.1-0.24. Otherwise, there will be gaps between layers.
 
Solutions: Check the layer height to make sure the layer height properly matches the nozzle diameter.
 
2. Low printing temperature
It is much easier to print heated filament because the layers can be easily solidified and stacked to each other. If the layer height is set correctly, it might require a higher temperature to heat up the filament for better adhesion. Printing ABS filament at 190℃ often leads to layer misalignment because ABS requires a higher printing temperature between 230 to 260℃ for stronger adhesion.
 
Solution: Make sure to set the correct printing temperature for the corresponding filament. If the temperature is lower than what it requires, please try to increase the temperature by 10 ° C each time to see if the adhesion improves.

3. Fast printing speed and thin wall thickness
Different printing speed results in different print quality. There must be huge differences in model adhesion between the model printed at a speed of 100mm/s and the model printed at a speed of 50mm/s. So is the wall thickness. Compared to the model with 1.2mm wall thickness, the model with 0.04mm wall thickness is definitely easily broken. If the model wall is too thin, it will tend to be broken especially during cold weathers in winter.


Solution: Adjust ppropriate printing speed and proper wall thickness and infill.